Istihsan (Juristic Preference) and Maslaha (public interest)

Istihsan (Juristic Preference) Istihsan literally means to deem something preferable. In its juristic sense, Istihsan is a method of exercising personal opinion (ray) in order to avoid any rigidity and unfairness that might result from literal application of law. Istihsan as a concept is close to equity in western law. However equity in western law is based on natural law, whereas Istihsan is essentially based on divine law.

Istihsan is not independent of Shariah, it is integral part of Shariah. Istihsan is an important branch of Ijtihad, and has played a prominent role in adaptation of Islamic law to the changing needs of society. Istihsan has been validated by Hanafi, Maliki and Hanbali jurists. Imam Shafi, Shii and Zahiri Ulama have rejected it as a method of deduction. However, in effect Majority have accepted Istihsan.

It has been mentioned that decision of Umar Bin Khattab to suspend “hadd” penalty (penalty prescribed by the Quran and Sunnah) of amputation of hand during famine is an example of Istihsan. Here positive law of Islam was suspended as an exceptional measure in an exceptional situation (for other examples see text book). A major jurist Al-Sarakhsi considers Istihsan as a method of seeking facility and ease in legal injunctions and is in accord with the Quran (2:183). Kamali says that companions (Sahabi) and successors (Tabiun) were not merely literalist. On the contrary, their rulings were often based on their understanding of the spirit and purpose of Shariah. Kamali gives a new example. Oral testimony was the standard form of evidence in Islamic law. However, now in some cases photography, sound recording and laboratory analysis have become more reliable means of proof. Here is a case of Istihsan by which method we can prefer these means of proofs over oral testimony in many cases.

Hanafi jurist Abul Hasan al Karkhi defines Istihsan as a principle which authorizes departure from an established precedent in favor of a different ruling for a stronger reason. The Maliki jurists are more concerned with Istislah (consideration of public interest) than Istihsan. They validate Istihsan as more or less similar to Istislah or as a part of Istislah. (See Maliki and Hanbali definitions in the Text book). Continue reading