The Fiqh of Eid

From Heavenly Ornaments of Imam Ashraf al-Tahanawi

(Allah have mercy on him)

EID PRAYER

1. The first of Shawwaal is known as Eid ul-Fitr, and the tenth of Zil Hijjah is known as Eid ul-Ad’haa. Both these days are days of festivity and celebration in Islam. On both these days it is necessary (wajib) to offer two rakaats of prayer as a form of gratitude. The prerequisites and conditions that have been mentioned for the validity and compulsion for Friday, apply for the Eid prayer as well. With the exception that for the Friday prayer the khutbah is a prerequisite and fard, while for the Eid prayers it is not fard but sunnah. Furthermore, the Friday khutbah is delivered before the prayer while for the Eid prayers, the khutbah is delivered after the prayer. However, listening to the khutbah of Eid is necessary (wajib) just as it is necessary (wajib) for the khutbah of Friday, i.e. while the khutbah is being delivered, it is haraam to talk, walk about or offer prayer.

Thirteen things are sunnah on the day of Eid ul-Fitr:

(i) To adorn oneself according to the Shariah.

(ii) To have a bath.

(iii) To use miswaak.

(iv) To wear the best of clothing which one possesses.

(v) To apply perfume.

(vi) To wake up very early in the morning.

(vii) To go early to the Eid prayer place.

(viii) To eat something sweet, such as dates, before going to the Eid prayer place.

(ix) To give the sadaqatul fitr before going to the Eid prayer place.

(x) To offer the Eid prayer in the Eid prayer place. That is, one should not offer Eid prayer in the masjid without any valid reason.

(xi) To return from the Eid prayer place taking a route that is different from the one that he had taken when going towards the Eid prayer place.

(xii) To go to the Eid prayer place on foot.

(xiii) To read the following takbeer softly while walking towards the Eid prayer place:

2. The method of offering Eid ul-Fitr prayer is as follows: the following intention should be made: “I intend offering two rakaats necessary (wajib) of Eid ul-Fitr prayer with six necessary (wajib) takbeers.” After making this intention, he should commence his prayer. He must recite the thanaa’ and then say Allahu Akbar three times. Each time that he says Allahu Akbar, he should raise his hands to his ears just as he does for the takbeer-e-tahreemah. After making the takbeer, he should let his hands rest at his sides. In-between each takbeer, he should pause to such an extent that he can read Sub’haanallah three times. After the third takbeer, he should not rest his hands but tie them. He should then read the ta’awwudh and bismillah, Surah Faatihah and another Surah. Thereafter, he should make his ruku and sajdahs and stand up as he normally does. In the second rakaat, he should first recite Surah Faatihah and another Surah. Thereafter, he should make three takbeers but after the third takbeer he should not tie his hands but leave them at his sides. He should then make one more takbeer and go into ruku.

3. After the prayer, the imam has to stand on the mimbar and deliver two khutbahs. He should sit down in-between the two khutbahs to the extent that he sits between the khutbahs of Friday.

4. Dua should be made after the Eid prayer, or even after the khutbah. Although this dua has not been established from the life of The Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, the Sahabah, Taabi’een and even the Tabe Taabi’een, but because it is sunnah to make a dua after every prayer, it will be preferable to make it after the Eid prayer as well. Continue reading

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Fiqh of The Sunna (Nafl) Prayers

An exposition of the sunna prayers not directly related to the obligatory prayers

Answered by Sidi Fadi Qutub Zada

In the name of Allah, Most Merciful and Compassionate.

All praise is to Allah, Lord of the worlds.

And all blessings and peace to our Master Muhammad, his family, and companions

The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) related from Allah Most High that He said,

“… And my servant continues to draw closer to me by voluntary actions until I love him…” [Bukhari]

There are ten main voluntary prayers not directly related to the obligatory prayers.

The Salutation of the Mosque Prayer (Tahiyyat al-Masjid)

On the authority of Abu Qatada (Allah be pleased with him) he said, “The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: ‘If any of you enters the Mosque, let him not sit until he prays two rakats.'” [Bukhari & Muslim]

And on the authority of Abu Dhar (Allah be pleased with him) he said, “I entered the mosque, and there was the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) sitting alone, so he said: ‘Oh Abu Dhar, Truly the mosque has a greeting, and indeed its greeting is two rakats, so stand up and pray them.'”[Reported by Ibn Hiban in his Sahih]

Ibn Abidin explains in his commentary Radd al-Muhtar on al-Durr al-Mukhtar that, “What’s intended by it (i.e. greeting the mosque) is drawing nearer to Allah not to the mosque, because a man if he enters the house of a king greets the king not his house.” [Radd al-Muhtar ‘ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar, 1:456] Continue reading

The Fiqh of Sending Peace and Blessings on the Prophet

( Allah bless him with the best of blessings and give him the most perfect of peace)

Answered by Shaykh Sohail Hanif, SunniPath Academy Teacher

In the name of Allah, the inspirer of truth. All praise is to Allah, Most Merciful and Compassionate, and all blessings and peace to our Master Muhammad, his family, companions, and those who follow them.

Allah most high says “Allah and his angels send blessings on the prophet, o you who believe, send blessings on him and salute him with all respect.” [Qur’an, 33:56]

The messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said “the one in whose presence I am mentioned and does not send blessings on me is a miser.” [reported by Tirmidhi, who declared it well and rigorously authenticated]. The meaning of sending blessings on the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace)

The great 19thCentury Shaykh al-Azhar, Imam Bajuri mentions in his supercommentary (hashiya) on the Sanusiyyain aqida,

“There are three meanings for salat (‘sending blessings’):

The first is purely linguistic and it is prayer (du`a) in it’s most general sense.

The second is purely legal and it is the spoken elements and physical actions that start with the saying Allahu Akbar(‘Allah is most great’) and ends with the greetings of peace (taslim), with specific preconditions. [f: Namely, the ritual prayer.]

The third is both linguistic and legal. According to the majority, it is mercy when attributed to Allah; and seeking forgiveness (istighfar) when attributed to any other than Him, whether angels and others…

As for the word ‘salam’, it’s meaning is security. The purpose of this is to reassuring the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) about what he fears for his nation…Some have explained it as greeting, meaning, when attributed to Allah, that He address him with His beginninglessly eternal speech to indicate the loftiness of his immense rank.” [Ibrahim al-Bajuri, Hashiya al-Bajuri `ala al-Sanusiyya, pg 7, Mustafa al-Babi al-Halabi] Continue reading

The Fiqh of Right and Wrong: How to command the good and forbid the wrong

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question:

If one is teaching a classroom filled with male and female youths that belong to Muslim parents, it would be permissible to teach them, regardless if one or two of them were adults but not wearing hijab?

Answer:

Walaikum assalam,

I pray this finds you in the best of health and spirits.

This follows the ruling of commanding the good and forbidding the wrong. The essential purpose of commanding the good and forbidding the evil is to increase the good, and reduce wrong.

As such, it must be done after clear thinking and proper assessment of the situation, and possible outcomes. Until reasonably sure that one’s words or actions will be of benefit (the least of which would be to affirm the truth, even if it is not heeded), and bereft of harm, one should not act. The scholars deduce this from the Prophet’s words (Allah bless him and give him peace), “Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, let him say what is good or remain silent.” [Bukhari and Muslim]

Imam Nawawi (Allah have mercy on him) said,

“Every legally responsible person should refrain from saying anything except when there is a clear advantage to speaking. Whenever speaking and not speaking are of equal benefit, it is sunna to remain silent, for permissible speech easily leads to that which is unlawful or offensive, as actually happens much or even most of the time – and there is no substitute for safety. The Prophet (Allah) bless him and give him peace) said,

“Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, let him say what is good or remain silent.”

This hadith, whose authenticity Bukhari and Muslim concur upon, is an explicit legal text indicating that a person should not speak unless what he intends to say is good, meaning that the benefit of it is apparent to him. Whenever one doubts that there is a clear advantage, one should not speak. Imam Shafi`i (Allah have mercy on him) said, “When one wishes to speak, one must first reflect, and if there is a clear interest to be served by speaking, one speaks, while if one doubts it, one remains silent until the advantage becomes apparent.” [Nawawi, al-Adhkar, as translated by Shaykh Nuh Keller, Reliance of the Traveller, r.1.1] Continue reading

The Fiqh of Itikaf (spiritual retreat)

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

The Fiqh of I`tikaf (spiritual retreat)

Based on Shurunbulali’s Imdad al-Fattah, and other Hanafi texts

In the Name of Allah, Most Merciful and Compassionate. May His abundant blessing and most perfect of peace be on His Beloved Prophet, the best of creation, and his family, companions and followers.

I`tikaf means ‘remaining’ somewhere.

The technical usage of the term is:

a) for men: to remain in the mosque, with an intention,

b) for women: to remain in their designated prayer area (musalla) at home, with intention, or at the mosque (though it is normally somewhat disliked for them to do so).

I`tikaf is a means of great reward. It says in the Fatawa Hindiyya,

“Its excellence is obvious, for the one make such a spiritual retreat:

  • Has submitted their entire person to the worship of Allah Most High;
  • seeks closeness;
  • distances themselves from the worldly distractions that prevent one from proximity;
  • drowning their entire time in actual or effective worship, for the basis of its legislation is to wait from one prayer time to the next prayer in congregation;
  • it also makes the one is retreat resemble the angels who do not disobey the command of Allah and do what they are commanded, while glorifying Allah by night and day without tiring…” [1.212] Continue reading