This list is not conclusive and there are many scholars not mentioned with in this list.
Scholars of the 1st Century AH
The Scholars of the 1st Century AH (7th Century AD)
The scholars below are organised both according to chronological dating. These scholars are Orthodox in the sense that their creed, understanding of the foundations of fiqh was correct. Without this, no scholar could be included in the ranks as an Orthodox father or mother in the true sense of the word.
- Shaikh ul-Islam Abu Bakr as-Siddiq
- Shaikh ul-Islam `Umar al-Faaruq
- Imaam `Uthmaan Ibn `Affaan al-Ghani
- Imaam Asadullah `Ali ibn Abi Taalib al-Murtadaa
- Umm il-Muminin `Aisha as-Siddiqa
- Imaam `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud
- Imaam al-Hasan ibn `Ali
- Imaam al-Hussain ibn `Ali
- Imaam Anas ibn Maalik
Shaikh ul-Islam Abu Bakr as-Siddiq
53 BH-13 AH/ 572-635 AD. He was the first khalifa [11-13 AH/632-634 AD] of Islam. All of the Sahaaba unanimously agreed upon his appointment. Of the 10 directly promised the Jannah by the Prophet Muhammad SALLALLAHU ALAIHI WA SALLAM, he is amongst them, in addition to his being the best friend of the Prophet Muhammad SALLALLAHU ALAIHI WA SALLAM . He SALLALLAHU ALAIHI WA SALLAM spoke of Abu Bakr RAA in the following way, ‘There is no one after the prophets and messengers that the sun has set or risen on more virtuous than Abu Bakr.’ He missed the presence of the Messenger of Allah SALLALLAHU ALAIHI WA SALLAM so much that he died of grief, but someone had also put poison in the soup that he drank. He breathed his last at the age of 63 years. He had ruled for 2 years, 3 months and 10 days.
Shaikh ul-Islam `Umar al-Faaruq
The second khalifa [13-23 AH/634-644 AD] of the Muslims and the second of ten to be promised the Paradise by the Prophet Muhammad SALLALLAHU ALAIHI WA SALLAM . In his time as khalifa, he had some 1,036 cities taken over and 4,000 masjids built, two of them being in Basra and its’ sister city, Kufa. He also set up inns and soup kitchens for the poor as well as destitute travellers. Pensions for soldiers and other public service workers were established. Al-Faaruq was known for his sagacity, his justice and uncompromising scrupulousness. His hatred for corruption and evil caused tremendous admiration for him from the Muslims. This only brought enmity from the kuffar, however. He was martyred at 63 years of age while leading the Fajr prayer by a Parsee named Abu Lu’lu al-Majusi. He left behind his wife and 13 children. He had ruled for 10 years, 6 months and 5 days.
Imaam `Uthmaan Ibn `Affaan al-Ghani
The third khalifa [23-34 AH/644-655 AD] of the Muslims and the third to be promised the Paradise by the Prophet SALLALLAHU ALAIHI WA SALLAM. Al-Ghani was also known as Dhun-Nurain (the possessor of the two lights) due to his marriage to two of the Prophet Muhammad SALLALLAHU ALAIHI WA SALLAM ’s daughters. A very shy man, but an adept statesman and scholar of letters, the third khalifa was a hard working man. It was under his supervision that the Qur’an was given a hard back spine, a cover as well as a universal postal system being established. He was murdered by a member of the Khawaarij named Himaar while in his home reading the Qur’an at the age of 86 years. He had ruled for 11 years 11 months and 19 days.
Imaam Asadullah `Ali ibn Abi Taalib al-Murtadaa
The fourth khalifa [34-38 AH/655-659 AD] of Islam and a master of Arabic grammar and theology, al-Murtadaa had one of the shortest tenures as khalifa, but his bravery through the annals of Islam is legendary. In addition to being the fourth of the ten promised the Paradise by the Messenger of Allah SALLALLAHU ALAIHI WA SALLAM , Imaam `Ali RAA was also married to the youngest and most cherished daughter of the Prophet SALLALLAHU ALAIHI WA SALLAM, Faatima az-Zahra RAA, a leader of the women of Paradise. He was murdered at the age of 63 years by Ibn Muljum, an assassin from the ranks of the Khawaarij, while opening the door to the masjid for the Fajr prayer. His body is buried somewhere in Kufa in Iraaq. There are two grave sites, due to the fact that at the time of his burial, the Khawaarij were searching for his body so that they might mutilate it. He had ruled for 4 years and 8 months.
Umm il-Mu’minin `A’isha as-Siddiqa
The favourite wife of the Prophet Muhammad SALLALLAHU ALAIHI WA SALLAM and the most knowledgeable of the women Sahaabiyaat, she narrated some 2,210 or more ahaadith. In addition to mastering the sciences of tafsir and fiqh, she was a Qaadiya with her own court in Iraaq when she visited as well as Madinah. She died at the age of 77 years.
Imaam `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud
One of the most senior most Sahaaba and a master of the Qur’an in its’ recital, memorisation and understanding of the events of its revelation. Ibn Mas`ud RAA was the judge and elder of the growing community of Kufa in Iraaq, the sister city of Basra.
Imaam al-Hasan ibn `Ali
The eldest son of Imaam `Ali ibn Abi Taalib RAA and the fifth khalifa after his father, al-Hasan was the chief negotiator between Mu`awiyah ibn Abi Sufyaan and the other Muslims and prevented an all out civil war amongst the Muslim community. The year he completed the negotiations is called ‘the Year of Jama`ah (togetherness),’ a time of peace and jubilation for Muslims. Due to this act, Allah would guide the khalifas of the Ummayyads for 100 years with few disturbances or insurrections. Every khalifa was succeeded after the natural death of the other. This was not the case with the Abbassids. Named by the Prophet Muhammad SALLALLAHU ALAIHI WA SALLAM himself, the names al-Hasan and that of his brother al-Hussain, were not popularly known amongst the Arabs. These names were referred to by the Prophet SALLALLAHU ALAIHI WA SALLAM as two fragrances from the Paradise. Upon retiring to Madinah, it is reported that he was poisoned by his wife who accepted an unscrupulous bribe. He is buried in al-Madinah the radiant. He had been the fifth khalifa and had fulfilled the prophecy made by the Messenger of Allah SALLALLAHU ALAIHI WA SALLAM that the khilaafa system after him would be 30 years. The six months, and the rest of the days of his khilaafa came to 30 years, exactly the number that had been prophesied.
Imaam al-Hussain ibn `Ali
Known as the master of the martyrs and one of the leaders of the Paradise and a fragrance of the Paradise. Imaam al-Hussain was an Imaam that campaigned for the rights of Muslims and also opposed some of the corruption that he saw amongst some members of the military of the khalifa of the time. A righteous man and scholar of Islam, al-Hussain was murdered by a rogue element in the army of the then khalifa, Yazid ibn Mu`awiyah. He is buried in Karbala.
Imaam Anas ibn Maalik
One of the great muftis of the Sahaaba and a man of sharp intellect and wisdom, he taught Imaam Abu Hanifa RH briefly and had resided in Kufa. Continue reading