The Friday Sermon following Saladin’s Conquest of Jerusalem in 1187

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

[taken from elsewhere]

The khutba or Friday sermon, delivered in the al-Aqsa mosque immediately following the conquest of Jerusalem by Salah al-Din Yusuf b. Ayyub (d. 1174-1193) in 1187, is preserved by Ibn Khallikan in his biography of Muḥyiddīn ibn al-Zakī. Ibn Khallikan (1211-1282) served as chief qāḍī of the Shāfi‛īs in Damascus. His greatest achievement is his biographical dictionary of some 800 famous Muslims entitled Wafayāt al-a‛yān wa-anbā’ abnā’ al-zamān (Obituaries of the Notables and News of the Sons of the Age), fully translated here:

https://ia601406.us.archive.org/17/items/ibnkhallikansbi00slangoog/ibnkhallikansbi00slangoog.pdf

Translation

Abū al-Ma‛ālī Muḥammad ibn Abī al-Ḥasan ‘Alī ibn Muḥammad ibn Yaḥya ibn ‘Alī ibn ‘Abd al-‛Azīz ibn Ḥusayn ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ibn al-Qāsim ibn al Walīd ibn al-Qāsim ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ibn ‘Abban ibn ‘Uthmān ibn ‘Affān [the third caliph], a member of the tribe of Quraysh and surnamed Muhyiddīn but generally known by the appellation of Ibn al-Zakī, or son of Zakī al-Dīn, was a native of Damascus and a jurist of the Shāfi‛ī school. He displayed acquirements of the most varied kinds, being versed in the law, general literature, and other sciences, and having composed some fine poetry, khutbas(sermons), and epistles. On Wednesday, the 20th of Rabī‛ al-Awwal 588 (5 April 1192) he was appointed Chief Judge of Damascus; so, at least, I have found it written in the handwriting of al-Qādī al-Fāḍil, and the same place had been previously filled by his father and grandfather, as it was subsequently by two of his own sons.

He possessed to the highest degree, the favor of the sultan Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn, and when that prince took the city of Aleppo on Saturday, the 18th of Safar 579 (11 June 1183), he recited to him a poem, a masterpiece of perfection. One of its verses, which has since obtained great currency among the public, was the following:

The taking of the Grey Castle [Aleppo] in the month of Safar
Announces the conquest of Jerusalem for the month of Rajab.

This was really the case, since Jerusalem was taken on the 27th of Rajab 583 (2 October 1187). When Muhyiddīn was asked how he came by that idea, he replied that he took it from the comment of Ibn Barrajān on these words of the Qur’an (30:1): “Alif, lām, mīm. The Romans have been overcome in the nearest part of the land, but, after their defeat, they shall be victorious within a few years.” From the moment I met with the above verse, and learned this account of it, I began searching for the commentary of Ibn Barrajān, and found the statement to be true; but the passage was written on the margin of the leaf and in a different hand from that of the text, and I know not whether it be an interpolation or a part of the work. A long calculation of his is there given, by which he deduces this result from the words “a few years.”

When the sultan Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn took Aleppo he confided to Muhyiddīn the post of chief magistrate and judge, and appointed as his deputy Zayn al-Dīn Banna Abū al-Faḍl ibn al-Banyāsī.

On the conquest of Jerusalem, all the learned men who happened to be in the retinue of the sultan aspired to the honor of pronouncing the khutba on the ensuing Friday, and each of them sent in for examination a khutba written with great eloquence, in the hopes of being chosen; but the sultan addressed an order to Muhyiddīn, directing him to be the preacher. This was the first Friday on which the public prayer was said at Jerusalem after the taking of the city, and the sultan with all the chief men of the empire attended the ceremony. Muḥyiddīn mounted the pulpit and commenced his discourse by pronouncing the Fātiḥa. Then he said:

God has cut off the uttermost part of those who acted perversely; so praise be to God, the Lord of all creatures. “Praise be to God, who has created the heavens and the earth and ordained darkness and light” (6:1). “Praise be to God who has never begotten a son; who has no partner in His Kingdom; who needs none to defend Him from humiliation; and magnify Him by proclaiming His greatness” (17:111). “Praise be to God who has revealed the Book to His servant shorn of falsehood and unswerving from the truth, so that he may give warning of a dire scourge from Himself, proclaim to the faithful who do good works that a rich and everlasting reward awaits them, and admonish those who say that God has begotten a son” (18:1-3). “Say: Praise be to God, and peace upon His servants whom He has chosen! Who is more worthy, God or the idols they serve besides Him?” (27:59). “Praise be to God, to whom belongs all that the heavens and earth contain! Praise be to Him in the world to come. He is the Wise One, the All-knowing” (34:1). “Praise be to God, Creator of the heavens and the earth! He sends forth the angels as His messengers, with two, three or four pairs of wings. He multiplies His creatures according to His will. God has power over all things” (35:1). Continue reading

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Art and Islamic Architecture

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Art and Islamic Architecture  99-2014-11-10 17-39-55

Art and Islamic Architecture (Pdf)

This work presents the unique art designed and developed by the Islamic culture over it’s history, it was created feesabilillah and is also available on iBooks. Any comments and suggestions can be sent to bi.isim.allah@outlook.com, kindly make dua for us, Jazak Allah Khair.

The Essence of Islamic Art

From the first thousand years of Islam, since the first the revelations to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) to the great Islamic empires of the eighteenth century, Islamic civilization flourished, Muslims made remarkable advances in philosophy, science, medicine, literature, and art. The uniting of so many diverse cultures under one religion allowed for the quick dissemination of the latest discoveries to all parts of the Islamic realm. Paper making from China, “Arabic” numerals from India, classical science and philosophy, along with significant contributions in chemistry, physics and mathematics were all quickly shared via the trade routes the Islamic international civilization had established from Western Africa and Europe to Asia.

Islam fostered the development of a distinctive culture with its own unique artistic language that is reflected in art and architecture throughout the Muslim world.

Gradually, under the impact of the Muslim faith a uniquely Islamic art began to emerge. The rule of the Umayyad caliphate (661–750) is often considered to be the formative period in Islamic art. One method of classifying Islamic art, is according to the dynasty reigning when the work of art was produced. This type of periodization follows the general precepts of Islamic history, which is divided into the rule of various dynasties, beginning with the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties that governed a vast and unified Islamic state from Africa to the borders of India and China, and concluding with the more regional, though powerful, dynasties such as the Safavids, Ottomans, and Mughals. Continue reading

1001 Years Of Missing Islamic Martial Arts

Adapted From: 1001 YEARS OF MISSING MARTIAL ARTS by Master Mohammed Khamouch

Early Muslim merchants and travellers of Arab and Persian origin, voyaged to China in their quest for the silk trade, enduring perilous journeys to establish strong trade relations that endured for centuries. This produced a dramatic increase in economic growth within Muslim mercantile communities, especially in the ancient imperial city of Chang’an (present day Xian) in Shaanxi Province, the eastern terminus of the Silk Roads and the Maritime (Silk Route) port cities of al-Zaytun (Quanzhou) and Guangzhou (Canton).

As Muslims settled and widely dispersed throughout the country, rapid progress was achieved in allowing Muslims to govern their own internal affairs, build Mosques and appoint a Qādī (Muslim judge) who adjudicated according to Islamic (Sharia) law. When a military commander An Lu-Shan revolted against Emperor Su T’sung in 755 CE, an urgent plea was made to the Abbasid Caliph Abū Jafar al-Mansūr who immediately sent a contingent of 4000 soldiers who eventually quelled the unrest and recaptured the city.

[With regards to the Shaolin fighting system, the oldest evidence of Shaolin participation in combat is a stele from 728 AD that attests to two occasions: a defense of the Shaolin Monastery from bandits around 610 AD, and their subsequent role in the defeat of Wang Shichong at the Battle of Hulao in 621 AD.]

Chang’an, retained its normality once more and continued in its splendour under the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE),as the world’s most thriving metropolis. During the Tang period a variety of different cultures, knowledge and spiritual beliefs, all interacted with each other; thus attracting many keen Japanese and Korean scholars who wished to learn and observe Chinese arts.

Many Abbasid warriors who helped the Emperor accepted the invitation to stay and settled in China, marrying Chinese wives thus beginning a natural process of integration into Chinese society while maintaining Islamic identity and stressing a common lineage and descent from venerated Muslim ancestors. These ancestors were colloquially known as “Hui Hui” down the centuries, and founded one of the longest lived and rarest of all Muslim minorities in the world. This colourful pattern is implicitly mentioned in the following Quranic verse:”O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of male and female, and made you into Nations and tribes, that ye may know each other” (Qur’an 49:13).

During the Mongol Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368 CE), founded by Kublai Khan, Muslims were granted special status and were known as “Da’shma” or “Da’shman” (meaning the learned one), because of their outstanding ability and contribution as statesmen, astronomers, astrologers, doctors, pharmacist, architects, businessmen, philosophers and authors. P’u Sung Ling, popularly known as one of China’s few great novelists, wrote stories considered as the Chinese equivalent of the Arabian “1001 Nights”, obtainable in many languages.

The efficient management of Kublai Khan’s royal court and palaces, which included over thirty high Muslim officials, was noticed by Marco Polo (1254-1324 CE), who was awe-struck by the mighty ruler. Out of twelve administrative districts, eight had Muslim governors and Muslims occupied numerous other senior positions in civil power. They were also military advisors, as well as martial arts experts and bodyguards who escorted caravans on long perilous journeys. Muslim scientists were invited to participate in various projects including the construction and running of the famous observatory in Shensi (Shaanxi). Continue reading

Chronolgy of Events in Muslim Heratige

This is a short and incomplete list of major developments made by Muslims during the 9th to 16th Centuries.

9th Century

 

800AD Muslim merchants reach China (Canton). Foundation of a paper factory in Baghdad; the first in history outside China. The Muslims use different materials from the Chinese, though. This is a development that would subsequently revolutionise learning. The paper industry spreads from Baghdad, to Syria and further West, until it reaches about a century later Europe (Spain) via Morocco. Mash’allah writes on the Astrolabe. He was one of the earliest astronomers and astrologers in Islam. Only one of his writings is extant in Arabic, but there are many medieval Latin and Hebrew translations of it. His most popular book in the Middle Ages was the `De scientia motus orbis,’ translated by G. Cremonna in the twelfth century. Al-Tabari writes on Astronomy.

807AD Harun al-Rashid gives Charlemagne a clock that struck the hours.

808AD Foundation of the city of Fez by the Idrisids in Morocco.

815AD Foundation in Baghdad of the science library and academy Bayt al-Hikma.

820AD Possible year of the death of Ibn Muhammad. Muslim historian and archaelogist. He completed the studies of his father (Muhammad) on Arabian antiquity and became the leading authority of his time on the subject. His main work deals with the genealogy of the Arabs (Kitab al-nassab al-kabir…)

820AD Mohammed ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi writes Al-jabr wa’l Muqabalah, from which we derive the word “Algebra”, which gives algorithms for finding the positive solutions to all equations of the first and second degree (linear and quadratic). Al-Khwarizmi was one of the first to compute astronomical and trigonometrical tables.

820-829AD Birth of Astronomer and Geographer al Farghani. al-Farghani (Alfraganus) was the first Muslim writer to write a comprehensive treatise on astronomy, that was very popular until the fifteenth century. It influenced not only the Muslim, but also through Latin and Hebrew translations, the Christian and Jewish astronomers.

829AD Al-Mamun has an observatory built. His astronomers calculate the inclination of the ecliptic at 23 degree 33′. They also construct tables of planetary motion. The same scientists calculate the circumference of the earth, putting it at 20, 400 miles.

830AD The Baghdad observatory determines the position of the solar apogee as 82039′. Continue reading

The Beginnings of the Persecution of Muslims

Signs of Things to Come And The Beginnings of the Persecution of Muslims

Returning to Spain, cracks began appearing in his this cozy arrangement between the benign Christian rulers of Spain and their Muslim ‘flock.’ What made it worse was that these problems were apparent to Garnatan Muslims that pondered over the state of Mudajaneen in Valencia and Arghun and the steady effort of the local authorities to wear down the Muslim Fuquha of the areas and eventually begin to tamper with the religious affairs of the mudajaneen. In fact almost all criminal cases between Muslims were tried not in a Shariah court, but before a Christian tribunal. In fact, “…in the thirteenth century the exercise of criminal justice by Mudejar courts was placed under the supervision of royal bailiffs, (Meyerson, 194). By 1329 CE, the cooperation between the Qadi’s and Christians judges was so extensive that Alfonso IV commanded his Christian judges to “…exercise [their] jurisdiction and inflict penalties with the counsel of Sarracen judges, commonly called qadi s, (ibid).” Moreover, the Christians had effectively nullified any meaningful illusion of power the

Islamic courts had as they interfered with a number of verdicts and issues, as was the case with murders committed by Muslims upon Christians:

“Jaime II [King of Aragon] quashed any possible Christian complaints that convicted Muslims were being punished too leniently when sentenced according to the Shariah by ruling that, for any crimes committed by Muslims against Christians, the Muslims were to be sentenced by the law that demanded the heaviest penalty…However, it seems that during Fernando’s [King Ferdinand of Spain] reign all Muslims culpable for crimes against Christians were penalized in accordance with the Furs71, (ibid, 212).”

Some kuffaar have mangled the issue to the extent that they claim “…Islamic justice was being administered, even if under the auspices of a Christian court [!], (ibid).” I suppose next we should contact Pope Benedict and ask him to write us a fatwa on how jihad is fard ayn today! I merely jest, but sadly, neither am I far from the reality of the matter either as our own ulema now virtually follow the lead of the kuffar and speak the truth when the ulema know they, (their leaders and the kuffaar leaders that control their leaders), will be pleased.

“Muslims most often pleaded before Christian courts against their fellows in order to set in motion the executive machinery of the royal bureaucracy against recalcitrant debtors and those who lived at a distance from them. Mudejars sought the king’s justice for its relative efficiency and coercive power. Even the decisions of the qadi general carried little weight without the backing of the bailiff general to enforce them, (ibid, 198)” In other words, the mudajjan preferred the law of the kuffaar due to its apparent ‘efficiency.’ Morever, wheresoever a shariah ruling was issued, it carried no weight unless the kafir judges backed it. One the first count, a majority of Muslims in the west today praise the American judicial system or the British system for its ‘efficiency’ or worse still, its ‘justice.’ This only proves their love of kufr and their inclination towards the kuffaar, when it is logically apparent that the law that Allah has revealed is the best law and way of live that provides true and absolute justice. There are parallels in this disgusting speech and possibly the attitudes of the mudajjan in Valencia and Arghun with people living in the west today. Some so called scholars and Islamic activists in the west and even in the Muslim world, state these are examples of the past, and are very different from how the governments, (and people), of the west treat us today with ‘justice,’ ‘fairness’ and ‘dignity.’ To dispel this fantasy, look at the ‘justice’ that was given to the mudajjan out of the ‘generosity of their kafir king, in that he appointed them attornies if they did not have one:

“Christian procurators (procuradors ), usually notaries given power of attorney, frequently represented Muslims in court. The Christian procurator might also act as a Muslim’s defense counsel, and some notaries seem to have been court-appointed public defenders. There is no evidence suggesting that the procurators were in any way negligent in the causes of their Muslim clients. For the notaries such dereliction of duty probably would have resulted in an undesired loss of clientele.

Muslims were in no way restricted from bringing charges against Christians. Thus, when the widow Axa Christelli was unable to appear in court to make the requisite formal accusations against the knight Gaspar de Monsorin and his squire for the murder of her son, the viceroy obliged her by sending an official to Algimia to record her accusations and to seize the accused for trial. (ibid, 211).”

In fact, in court, when Muslims had to take oath, “the Muslims swore on the Qur’an. In the trial records the Muslims are usually described as having “made an oath … to our Lord God and to the qiblah of Muhammad, turning the face toward midday and saying the words that Moors are accustomed to swear. (ibid, 210).” So how can one claim that there is a difference between these conditions and the condition of Muslim in countries such as America today? Continue reading