Book of Jihad – Bulugh al-Maram By Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani

Bulugh al-Maram min Adillat al-Ahkam, translation: Attainment of the Objective According to Evidences of the Ordinances by al-Hafidh ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (1372 – 1448) is a collection of hadith pertaining specifically to Islamic Jurisprudence of the Shafi’i madhab. This genre is referred to in Arabic as Ahadith al-Ahkam (The Ahadith Used in legal rulings, they are not the rulings themselves).

Bulugh al-Maram contains a total of 1358 hadiths. At the end of each hadith narrated in Bulugh al-Maram, al-Hafidh ibn Hajar mentions who collected that hadith originally. Bulugh al-Maram includes hadith drawn from numerous primary sources of hadith in it including, Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawud, Jami at-Tirmidhi, Sunan al-Nasa’i, Sunan ibn Majah, and Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal and more.

Bulugh al-Maram holds a unique distinction as all the hadith compiled in the book have been the foundation for Shafi’i Islamic Jurisprudence rulings. In addition to mentioning the origins of each of the hadith in Bulugh al-Maram, ibn Hajar also included a comparison between the versions of a hadith that came from different sources. Because of its unique qualities, it still remains a widely used collection of hadith regardless of school of thought.

Book of Jihad

This is book 11 of Bulugh al-Maram, containing 63 hadith.

Abu Hurairah (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:”He who dies without having gone or thought of going out for Jihad in the Cause of Allah, will die while being guilty of having one of the qualities of hypocrisy.” Related by Muslim.

Anas (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:”Fight the disbelievers (polytheists) with your property, yourselves and your tongues.” Related by Ahmad, An-Nasa’i and Al-Hakim graded it as Sahih.

‘A’ishah (RAA) narrated, ‘I said:’O Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)! Is Jihad prescribed (also) for women?’ Allah’s Messenger said, “Yes, a Jihad which is without fighting, it is Hajj and ‘Umrah.” Related by Ibn Majah.

Abdullah bin ‘Umar (RAA) narrated ‘A man came to the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) asking his permission to go out for Jihad. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) asked him, “Are your parents alive?” He replied, ‘Yes.’ The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) then said to him, “Then your Jihad would be with them (i.e. in looking after them and being at their service.).” Agreed upon.

Ahmad and Abu Dawud transmitted a similar hadith on the authority of Abu Sa’id, and they added the extra statement, “Go back and ask for their permission. If they permit you to go, then go for Jihad otherwise, be good to them (look after them).

Jarir (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:”Any Muslim who stays among the polytheists, does not belong to me.” Related by the three Imams with a sound chain of narrators. Imam Al-Bukhari considered it as Mursal (i.e. the companion is absent from the chain of narrators.

Ibn ‘Abbas (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:”There is no emigration (from Makkah to al·Madinah) after the conquest of Makkah, but only Jihad (in the Cause of Allah) and a good intention.

Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “The one who fights for Allah’s word to become Superior, is striving in Allah’s Cause.” Agreed upon.

‘Abdullah bin As-Sa’di narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “Emigration (to fight the enemy) will continue as long as an enemy is fought.” Related by An-Nasa’i, and Ibn Hibban graded it as Sahih.

Nafi’ (RAA) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made an attack on Bani al-Mustaliq when they were unaware. He killed the men who were lighting and took the women and children as captives.’ ‘Abdullah bin Umar told me about it. Agreed upon.

Sulaiman bin Buraidah narrated on the authority of his father on the authority of ‘A’ishah (RAA), “Whenever Allah’s Messenger appointed a commander over an army or a Sariyah, he would instruct him to fear Allah in his own behavior and consider the welfare of the Muslims who were with him. He then used to say “Go out for Jihad in Allah’s name, in the Cause of Allah, and fight those who disbelieve in Allah. Go out for Jihad and do not indulge in Ghulul, or be treacherous or mutilate (dead bodies) or kill a child. When you meet your enemy, or the polytheists, invite them to three courses of action, and accept whichever of them they are willing to agree to, and withhold from doing anything else:

Call them to Islam, and if they agree accept it from them. Then invite them to migrate from their land to the land of the Emigrants (i.e. al-Madinah), if they refuse, then tell them they will be like the Muslim desert Arabs, thus they will have no right in the Ghanimah or Fai’ unless they participate in Jihad with the Muslims. If they refuse (to accept Islam) order them to pay the Jizyah and if they agree, accept it from them. If they refuse, seek Allah, the Most High’s help against them and fight them. When you besiege a fortress, and its people wish you to grant them the protection of Allah and His Prophet, grant them neither but grant them your protection, for it is less serious (a lesser guilt) to break your guarantee of protection than to break that of Allah’s. And if they offer to capitulate under the condition that they are subjected to the judgment of Allah, do not grant them this, but judge according to your own command, for you do not know whether or not you will be able to carry out Allah, the Most High’s Judgment regarding them.” Related by Muslim.

– Ma’qil bin An-Nu’man bin Muqarrin (RAA) narrated, ‘I witnessed (battles with) Allah’s Messenger and if he did not start fighting at the beginning of the day, he delayed the fighting till the sun had passed the meridian, and the wind blew and victory descended from Allah.” Related by Ahmad and the three Imams. Al-Hakim graded it as Sahih.

Ma’qil bin An-Nu’man bin Muqarrin (RAA) narrated, ‘I witnessed (battles with) Allah’s Messenger and if he did not start fighting at the beginning of the day, he delayed the fighting till the sun had passed the meridian, and the wind blew and victory descended from Allah.” Related by Ahmad and the three Imams. Al-Hakim graded it as Sahih.

As-Sa’b bin Jath-thamah (RAA) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) was asked about the polytheists whose land was attacked at night with the probability that some of their women and offspring were killed or hurt.’ He said “They are from among them.” Agreed upon.

‘A’ishah (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said to a man who followed him on the day of the Battle of Badr, “Go back I will not seek help from a Mushrik (polytheist).” Reported by Muslim.

Ibn ‘Umar (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) saw a woman who was killed in one of his expeditions, so he disapproved the killing of women and children. Agreed upon.

Samurah (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “Kill the mature men of the polytheists but spare their children.” Related by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi graded it as Sahih.

‘Ali (RAA) narrated that They (the Muslims and the polytheists) engaged in duel combat on the Day of Badr. Related by Al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud reported it as part of a long hadith.

Abu Aiyub (RAA) narrated that This verse was revealed concerning us (al-Ansar).’ He was referring to the verse, “And do not throw yourselves into destruction. (2:195). Abu Aiyub said that to answer those who disapproved of the action of those who attacked the Romans till they were amidst their army.’ Related by the three Imams. At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim graded it as Sahih.

Ibn ‘Umar narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) burnt the palm trees of Banu an-Nadir and cut them down. Agreed upon,

‘Ubadah bin as-Samit (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “Do not be dishonest (and treacherous) about the war booty (i.e. steal from it before it is divided legally), as Ghulul will be like fire (for the ones who got involved in it) and a cause of disgrace to those who are guilty of it in this world and in the Hereafter.” Related by Ahmad, and An-Nasa’i, and Ibn Hibban graded it as Sahih.

‘Auf bin Malik (RAA) narrated, “The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) judged that the belongings taken from the (non-Muslim enemy) killed soldier in a war, are to be given to the one who killed him.’ Related by Abu Dawud. Muslim reported it as part of a long hadith.

‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Auf (RAA) narrated regarding the story of the killing of Abu Jahl,’..they both hastened to him with their swords till they killed him. Afterwards, they went to the Prophet and informed him (of what they had done). The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) asked them, “Which of you killed him? Have you wiped your swords?” They said:’No.’ The Prophet then looked at the swords and said, “Both of you killed him.” He then ordained that the belongings (weapons, shields etc..) of Abu Jahl should go to Mu ‘adh bin ‘Amro bin al-Jamuh.’ Agreed upon.

Makhul (RAA) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) set up the ballista while attacking the people of at-Ta’if`.’ Related by Abu Dawud with a trustworthy chain of narrators, but it is hadith Mursal.

Anas (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) entered Makkah with a helmet on his head, and when he took it off, a man came to him and said, ‘lbn Khattal is hanging on to the curtains of the Ka’bah.’ The Prophet thereupon said, “Kill him.” Agreed upon.

Sa’id bin Jubair (RAA) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) killed three men on the day of Badr while they were in bonds (by throwing arrows at them until they died).’ Related by Abu Dawud.

‘Imran bin Husain (RAA) narrated that The Prophet exchanged two Muslim men from captivity for one polytheist.” Related by At-Tirmidhi.

Sakhr bin Al-‘Ailah (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:”If the people (polytheists) accept Islam they will protect their blood and property? Related by Abu Dawud.

Jubair bin Mut’im (RAA) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said concerning the prisoners of war taken at Badr, “If al-Mut’am bin ‘Adi had been alive and spoken to me about those filthy ones(as they were polytheists), I would have freed them for him. Related by Al-Bukhari.

Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (RAA) narrated, ‘On the Day (the battle) of Autas, we took women captives who had husbands. The Companions felt uneasy to have any sexual relation with them. Then Allah, the Most High revealed the verse, “And women already married (are prohibited for you) except for those whom you possess. (4:24).sent a Sariyah to Najd, and I was among them. They got many camels as spoils and each one’s share was twelve camels, and they were given an additional camel each.” Agreed upon.

Ibn ‘Umar (RAA) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) sent a Sariyah (a small army for Jihad) to Najd, and I was among them. They got many camels as spoils and each one’s share was twelve camels, and they were given an additional camel each.’. Agreed upon.

Ibn ‘Umar (RAA) narrated, ‘On the Day of Khaibar, the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) allotted two shares for a horse, and one share (from the war booty) for the fighter. Agreed upon and the wording is from Al-Bukhari.

Abu Dawud also reported, ‘He allotted three shares for a man and his horse, two for his horse and one for him.’

Ma’n bin Yazid narrated, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) say, “Additional booties (extra to the allotted share) are to be distributed only after the fifth has been kept aside.” Related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud .At Tahawi graded it as Sahih.

Habib bin Maslamah (RAA) narrated, ‘I witnessed the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) give a quarter (of the war spoils) as an additional booty (to a Sariyah) when they gained booty on their way out to the fight, He also gave a third (of the war spoils) as an additional booty when they gained it on their way back. ‘Related by Abu Dawud, Ibn al-Garud, Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim graded it as Sahih.

Ibn ‘Umar (RAA) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to give some (members) of the Sariyah he sent out (i.e. some of the soldiers), additional booties especially for them, apart from the shares which are given to the whole army.’ Agreed upon.

Ibn ‘Umar (RAA) narrated, ‘On our expeditions, we used to get honey and grapes (as spoi1s) and eat them while on our military expeditions, without bringing them to the Prophet (or whoever is in charge of distributing the spoils).’ Related by Al-Bukhari. Abu Dawud narrated, ‘The fifth was not taken from them.’ Ibn Hibban graded it as Sahih.

‘Abdullah bin Abi Aufa (RAA) narrated, ‘On the Day of Khaibar, we got some food (as spoils). The man would come and take as much as he needed and then go away.’ Related by Abu Dawud.Ibn al-Garud and Al-Hakim graded it as Sahih.

Ruaifi’ bin Thabit (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:”He who believes in Allah and the Hereafter must not ride on an animal belonging to the booty of the Muslims and put it back when he has emaciated it, or wear a garment belonging to the booty of the Muslims and put it back when it is worn.” Related by Abu Dawud and Ad- Darimi.

Abu ‘Ubaidah al-Jarrah (RAA) narrated, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) say, “Muslims must respect the protection granted (to a non-Muslim) by other Muslims.” Related by Ibn Abi Shaibah and Ahmad with a weakness in its chain of narrators.

At-Taialisi transmitted on the authority of ‘Amro bin al-‘As (RAA), ‘The right of giving protection to non-Muslims is extended to the most humble of the believers (and all Muslims must respect it and give him support).’

Al-Bukhari and Muslim transmitted on the authority of ‘Ali (RAA), ‘The protection granted by one Muslim is like one given by them all, and this right is extended to the most humble of them.’

Ibn Majah narrated with a different chain of narrators, ‘And the most eminent gives protection on their behalf.’

Al-Bukhari and Muslim transmitted in the hadith of Umm Hani’, “We have given protection to whom you have granted (protection).”

‘Umar (RAA) narrated, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) say, “I will certainly expel the Jews and the Christians from the Arabian Peninsula so as to leave only Muslims in it.” Reported by Muslim.

‘Umar (RAA) narrated, ‘The wealth of Banu an-Nadir (one of the Jewish tribes) was part of what Allah bestowed on His Messenger , and which the Muslims had not ridden on horses or camels to get (i.e. they did not have to fight); so they belonged specially to the Prophet who would give his family their sustenance for a year, then applied what remained for horses and weapons and equipment in the Path of Allah, Who is Great and Glorious.” Agreed upon.

Mu’adh bin Jabal (RAA) narrated, ‘We went on an expedition to Khaibar along with the Prophet and we got some sheep (as spoils). Then Allah’s Messenger divided some of them among us and divided the rest with the other war booty,” Related by Abu Dawud on the authority of reasonably reliable men.

Abu Rafi'(RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:”I do not break a covenant or imprison messengers.” Related by Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i. Ibn Hibban graded it as Sahih.

Abu Hurairah (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “Whichever town you take peacefully (they surrendered without, fighting), and stay therein, you have a share in it (in whatever is obtained from it); and whichever town disobeys Allah and His Messenger, a fifth of (its booty) goes to Allah and His Messenger and what remains is yours. Related by Muslim.

‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Auf (RAA) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) took the Jizyah from the Magians of Hajar.’ Related by Al-Bukhari.

‘Asim bin ‘Umar narrated On the authority of Anas and Uthman bin Abu Sulaiman (RAA),’The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) sent Khalid bin al-Walid to Ukaidir of Dawmat al-Jandal and they seized him and brought him to the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) spared his life and made peace with him on the condition that he should pay Jizyah.’ Related by Abu Dawud.

Mu’adh bin Jabal (RAA) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) sent me to Yemen and he commanded me to take the Jizyah from everyone who has reached the age of puberty-one Dinar- or its equivalent in Ma’afiri (garments of Yemeni origin).’ Related by the three Imams. Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim graded it as Sahih.

‘A’idh bin ‘Amro al-Muzani (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “Islam is always superior and should never be surpassed.” Related by Ad-Daraqutni.

Abu Hurairah (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “Do not start by saluting the Jews and the Christians (when you meet them), and if you meet any of them on the road, force him to go to the narrowest part of the road (i.e. do not give them positions of authority among you.)” Related by Muslim.

Al·Miswar bin Makhramah and Marwan narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) went out in the year of al-Hudaibiyah (reconciliation)- the narrator narrated a long hadith which contained, ‘this is what Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah has reconciled with Suhail bin ‘Amro, to stop fighting for 10 years during which time people will live safely, and refrain from lighting one another…’ Related by Abu Dawud. It is part of a long hadith narrated by Al-Bukhari.

Muslim transmitted part of this hadith on the authority of Anas bin Malik (RAA) which says, ‘ln case any of you comes to us we shall not send him back to you (i.e. one of the Muslims who goes back to Quraysh), and in case any of us came to you, you should send him back to us (any of the people of Quraysh who goes to the Prophet they will send him back to Makkah).’ The Companions asked the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam),’O Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)! Will you write this down?’ He replied, “Yes. May Allah send out of His Mercy any of the Muslims who goes back to them. But Allah will grant a way out for anyone who comes to us from them.”

‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:”Whoever kills a Mu’ahid will not smell the fragrance of Paradise, even though its fragrance could be smelt at a distance of forty years.” Related by Al-Bukhari.

Ibn ‘Umar (RAA) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) held a horse race, with horses that had been made lean by training, from al-Hafiya to Thanyat al-Wada’ (names of two places) and he held a race from Thanyat- alWada’ to the mosque of Banu Zuraiq between the horses which had not undergone such training.’ Ibn ‘Umar was among those who took part in that race. Agreed upon. Al-Bukhari added: Sufian said, ‘From al·Hafiya’ to Thanyat al-Wada’ is a distance of live or six miles and from Thanyat- al-Wada’ to the mosque of Banu Zuraiq is a distance of one mile.’

Ibn ‘Umar (RAA) narrated, ‘ Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) held a horse race and made the destination from the fully grown ones at a longer distance Related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. Ibn Hibban graded it as Sahih.

Abu Hurairah (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said ,”Prize money is allowed only for racing camels, shooting arrows or racing horses.” Related by Ahmad and the three lmams. Ibn Hibban graded it as Sahih.

Abu Hurairah (RAA) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “If anyone introduces a horse in a race with two other horses, when he is not certain that it cannot be beaten, there is no harm in it, but when he is certain (it cannot be beaten) it is then considered as gambling.” Related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud with a weak chain of narrators.

‘Uqbah bin ‘Amir (RAA) narrated, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) recite when he was on the pulpit, “And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war( tanks, planes etc.)”(8:60), surely strength is in shooting (arrows); surely strength is in shooting, surely strength is in shooting.” Related by Muslim.

Source.

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