The Black Stone descended from Paradise along with Aadam. At first it was white, then it became black due to the sins of the children of Aadam.
Ibn ‘Abbaas narrated that the Prophet said: “The Black Stone descended from Paradise while being whiter than milk, then the sins of the children of Aadam turned it black.” [At-Tirmithi – Al-Albaani classified it as Saheeh (sound)]
Another narration reported by Al-Azraqi reads: “…The Black Stone descended glittering because of its extreme whiteness and then Aadam hugged it because he felt so happy to see it.” Moreover, Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr narrated, “Jibreel (Gabriel) descended with the Black Stone from Paradise and put it where you know, and you are upon much good as long as it [Black Stone] is with you, so hold fast to it as much as you can, as it is about to be taken back to where it came from.”
Perhaps the reason why the Black Stone was sent down (to the earth) from Paradise is what some scholars mentioned that when Aadam was sent down from Paradise, he felt very lonely and he yearned very much for it [Paradise], and he became extremely attached to it. Thus, Allaah The Almighty sent down the Black Stone from Paradise so that Aadam would be comforted and feel at ease with it and to alleviate his longing for it [Paradise]. Allaah The Almighty made kissing it and touching the Black Stone a means for the forgiveness of one’s sins, as the Prophet said: “Indeed, Allaah will resurrect the Black Stone on the Day of Judgment with two eyes by which it sees and with a tongue by which it speaks and it will bear witness for whoever really touched it.” [At-Tirmithi and Ibn Khuzaymah]
The Prophet also said: “Touching the Black Stone and the Yemini Corner completely wipes out the sins.” [At-Tirmithi, Ibn Hibbaan, Al-Haakim and Ath-Thahabi]
Narrated ‘Abis bin Rabia: ‘Umar came near the black stone and kissed it and said “No doubt, I know that you are a stone and can neither benefit anyone nor harm anyone. Had I not seen Allah’s Apostle kissing you I would not have kissed you.” (Bukhari Book #26, Hadith #667)
Narrated Zaid bin Aslam from his father who said: “Umar bin Al-Khattab addressed the Corner (black stone) saying, ‘By Allah! I know that you are a stone and can neither benefit nor harm. Had I not seen the Prophet touching (and kissing) you, I would never have touched (and kissed) you.’ Then he kissed it and said, ‘There is no reason for us to do Ramal (in Tawaf) except that we wanted to show off before the pagans, and now Allah has destroyed them.’ ‘Umar added, ‘(Nevertheless), the Prophet did that and we do not want to leave it (i.e. Ramal).’ (Bukhari Book #26, Hadith #675)
Narrated Zaid bin Aslam that his father said: “I saw ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab kissing the black stone and he then said, (to it) ‘Had I not seen Allah’s Apostle kissing you, (stone) I would not have kissed you.’ ” (Bukhari Book #26, Hadith #679)
Ibn Khuzaima and Ibn Habban, in their two Sahihs, related that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace be upon him) said that the Black Stone would be resurrected on the Day of Judgement with two eyes and a tongue, and would be a witness to those who sincerely touched and kissed it. (8, v. 2, p. 193) Al-Tirmidhi related that it was a good and sound Hadith.
Muslim related on the authority of Ibn Jabir Ibn Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with them), that they arrived at Makkah at noon when the Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) made his she-camel kneel down at the door of the Mosque. He entered the Mosque and started tawaf at the Black Stone. When he touched it, the tears came down his cheeks. He mentioned the Hadith and said, “He did Ramat in three rounds and walked the remaining four. After finishing tawaf, he kissed the Black Stone and put his hands on it and then rubbed his face with them.” Ibn Khuzaima said it was a good and sound Hadith.
Omar Ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) made it clear that people should not regard touching and kissing the Black Stone the same as the Arabs during Al-Jahiliyya period. He maintained that kissing the Black Stone and touching the Yemeni Corner were a kind of glorification to Allah, the Almighty, and a carrying out of His Prophet’s traditions. This is one of the religious rituals that Allah, the Supreme, commanded people to hold in high esteem. Allah, the Supreme, says: You haveindeed in the Messenger of Allah, an excellent example (33: 21).
And the Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) said, “Follow me in performing your religion’ rituals”.
The Black Stone is one of the White Rubies of Paradise and it was turned black by the sins of the polytheists. It will be resurrected on the Day of Judgement as a witness to those who touched and kissed it with good faith. (v. 2, p. 194) It was said that the Black Stone was placed in Mt. Abu Qabis until it was brought to Abraham (peace be upon him) and was put in the south-castem corner of the Holy Ka’bah one and a half metres above ground level. It is encircled by a frame of pure silver in order to protect it. It cannot be accurately described because the part we see is actually made up of eight small pieces, the biggest of which is in the size of a date, embedded in a wax mixture.
Some say there are 15 pieces, but thin the other seven pieces are deeply covered over in the brownish paste mixture, which is also touched by the circumambulators. This paste is a mixture of wax. musk and ambergris put on the top of the Black Stone. Muhammad Ibn Nafie AI-Khuzaie saw the Black Stone on the day when it was taken by the Qarmatians in the fourth century Hijrah. The top of the Black Stone was black but the rest of it was white. The length was about a cubit. Ibn I’llan Al-Makki, one of the scholars at that time, saw the Black Stone during the reign of the Ottoman Sultan Murad. Its length was then half a cubit and its width was a third of a cubit. It was white in colour but its top was black because of the misdeeds done by mankind. If the sins affect solid stone, their effects on the heart are even greater.
The first who encircled the Black Stone with silver rings was Abdullah Ibn AI-Zubair (may Allah be pleased with them). Then other caliphs and wealth) people followed suit and made the frame from silver and gold. The last who donated a frame of pure silver for the Black Stone, before the Saudi Government. was Al-Sultan Muhammad Rashad Khan in 1331 H. King Abdul Aziz (may his soul rest in peace) repaired part of it in 1366 H. In Sha ban, 1375 H., King Saud (may his soul rest in peace) replaced it with a new frame made of sterling silver.