Imam Maliks Fiqh: Conclusion,

These are the fundamental principles of Imam Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, which the scholars of his school have derived from the corpus of the secondary rulings transmitted from him. It is by means of them that his rulings were derived and upon them that they are based.

The first thing to be noticed about these principles is their flexibility. He did not make the unqualified text of the Book or the Sunna unequivocal. He opened the door to making its general texts specific and to qualifying what is unqualified. Just as he opened the door of specification, he showed there to be flexibility in the texts which facilitated the means of deriving judgements from them. A faqih should not be inflexible where the text is concerned, nor should he be excessively flexible.

The principles are all interconnected, one amplifying another, and so any unfamiliar meanings are winnowed out in favour of a meaning derived from an immediate principle. From that there emerges a mature fiqh that is strong, straightforward, familiar and known – one which people readily accept.

The second thing to be noticed after the flexibility of these principles is their orientation towards achieving the greatest benefit in the most direct manner. Analogy is made a way of achieving this. Istihsan is employed to achieve it by preferring a ruling derived by it if analogy is less apt to achieve the desired benefit. Consideration of public interest is made into a principle in order to achieve it by the easiest way. Malik also employed the method of facilitating or blocking the means which is also considered to be one of the fundamental principles used in deriving rulings. Then, finally, he considered custom, which is another means of removing distress, averting hardship, achieving benefit, and fulfilling people’s needs.

Malik saw that the basic aim of the Divine Lawgiver in His Shari’a was to realise the greatest benefit for the maximum number of people and so he made all his fiqh which was not based on an unequivocal text centre on this principle. He supports it by facilitating and blocking the means and other ways which lead to it, in order to achieve it by the quickest and easiest manner.

Thirdly, the principles which Malik used in deriving judgements are interconnected with and complementary to one another. All are derived from the same source and follow the same guidance: namely, the definitive text, its spirit and meaning and the ways in which the Prophet and the Companions applied it. Hence his fiqh is aimed at the same goal: the welfare of people in this world and the Next and following path of the Prophet and Companions without any innovation.

We find that Malik relies on the cases and fatwas of the Companions in recognising the objective of the Shari’a and then recognises the judgements of those of the following generation with deep knowledge of the texts and goals of the Shari’a and of its immediate and long-term consequences. In so doing, Malik opened the same methodology for his students who came after him and their students. They understood fiqh as he did and followed his way. So Maliki fiqh spread far and wide.


Shaykh Muhammad Abu Zahra (1898–1974) was a Scholar of al-Azhar and specialist of Juridical Principles (Usul), conservative Egyptian public intellectual and author.

Shaykh Abu Zahra was educated at the Ahmadi Madrasa, the Madrasa al-Qada al-Shari and the Dar al-Ulum. He taught at al-Azhar’s faculty of theology and later, as Professor of Islamic law at Cairo University. He also served as a member of al-Azhar’s Academy of Islamic Research. His more than forty books include biographies of Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik, Shafi’i, Ibn Hanbal, Zayd ibn Ali, Imam Jafar as-Sadiq, Imam Zain al Abideen, Ibn Hazm, and Ibn Taymiyyah, as well as works on personal status, pious endowments (waqf), property, and crime and punishment in Islamic law.


‘adat: customs, customary practice; a legal principle in the Maliki school.

adhan: the call to prayer.

ahad (khabar): an isolated hadith; a report which is transmitted through a single isnad or from a single source.

ahl al-hall wa’l’Ôaqd: “the people of loosing and binding,” i.e. the ‘ulama’ (people of knowledge), leaders and army commanders who make binding decisions for the community.

‘amm: generally applicable, in reference to a Qur’anic ruling.

Ansar: the “Helpers”, the people of Madina who welcomed and aided the Prophet.

awsaq: plural of wasq; a measure of volume equal to sixty sa‘s.

ayat: a verse of the Qur’an.

balagha: pl. balaghat, a hadith in which the isnad is not mentioned, but in which the reporter quotes the Prophet directly.

basmala: the expression “In the name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the All-Compassionate”.

bayan: clarification, elucidation, either the substance of a meaning in the Qur’an or the clarifying the meaning of that substance.

deen: the life-transaction, lit. the debt between two parties, in this usage between the Creator and created.

dhahir: apparent; a dhahir text can have two or more meanings.

dhawahir: plural of dhahir.

Dhuhr: the midday prayer.

faqih: pl. fuqaha’, a man learned in knowledge of fiqh who by virtue of his knowledge can give a legal judgement.

fatwa: an authoritative statement on a point of law.

fiqh: the science of the application of the Shari’a. A practitioner or expert in fiqh is called a faqih.

Follower: a Tabi’i, one of the generation after the Companions.

fuqaha’: plural of faqih.

gharib: a hadith which has a single reporter at some stage of the isnad.

hadith: reported speech of the Prophet.

hajj: the annual pilgrimage to Makka which is one of the five Pillars of Islam.

hadd: plural hudud. Allah’s boundary limits for the lawful and unlawful. The hadd punishments are specific fixed penalties laid down by Allah for specified crimes.

halal: permitted by the Shari’a.

haram: forbidden by the Shari’a.

hijra: emigration in the way of Allah, especially designating the emigration of the Prophet from Makka to Madina.

hudud: plural of hadd.

‘idda: a period after divorce or the death of her husband for which a woman must wait before re-marrying.

‘Id al-Fitr: the festival at the end of the fast of Ramadan.

ihram: the conditions of clothing and behaviour adopted by someone performing hajj or ‘umra.

ijma’: consensus.

ijtihad: to exercise personal judgement in legal matters.

iqama: the call which announces that the obligatory prayer is about to begin.

isnad: a tradition’s chain of transmission from individual to individual.

istisfad: considering a hadith to be mashhur.

istishab: Presumption of continuity, or presuming continuation of the status quo ante.

istihsan: to deem something good, juristic preference; to decide in favour of something which is considered good by the jurist, over against the conclusion that may have been reached by analogy.

Jahiliyya: the Time of Ignorance before the coming of Islam.

Jumu’a: the day of gathering, Friday, and particularly the Jumu’a prayer which is performed instead of Dhuhr by those who attend it.

kharaj: taxes imposed on revenue from land.

khass: specifically applicable, particular.

li’an: mutual cursing, a form of divorce which involves oath staken by the wife and husband when he accuses her of committing adultery.

madhhab: a school of law founded on the opinion of a faqih.

madrasa: a traditional place of study and learning.

al-masalih al-mursala: Considerations of public interest, human welfare, or utility not explicitly supported by a text.

mashhur: a hadith which is reported by more than two reporters.

miqat: one of the designated places for entering into ihram for hajj or ‘umra.

mudd: a measure of volume, approximately a double-handed scoop.

mufti: someone qualified to give a legal opinion or fatwa.

muhaddith: a scholar who transmits and/or studies hadith.

Muhajirun: the Companions of the Messenger of Allah who accepted Islam in Makka and made hijra to Madina.

mujmal: an undefined text which requires details and explanation.

mujtahid: a scholar who is qualified to carry out ijtihad.

munqati’: broken or incontiguous, a hadith with a missing link in the isnad before the Follower.

mursal: a hadith whose where a man in the generation after the Companions quotes directly from the Prophet without mentioning the Companion from whom he got it.

mutakallimun: those who study the science of kalam, the science of investigating religious belief or theological doctrine.

mutawatir: a hadith which is reported by a large number of reporters at all stages of the isnad.

muttasil: a hadith which an uninterrupted isnad.

nass: unequivocal or definitive text

nusus: plural of nass.

qadi: a judge, qualified to judge all matters in accordance with the Shari’a and to dispense and enforce legal punishments.

qawa’id: general legal precepts which clarify the method of using ijtihad in a school, and the links which connect minor questions.

qibla: the direction faced in the prayer which is towards the Ka’ba in Makka.

qiyas: logical deduction by analogy.

rak’at: a unit of the prayer consisting of a series of standings, bowing, prostrations and sittings.

ra’y: opinion, a legal decision based on the use of common sense and personal opinion, used where there is no explicit guidance in the Qur’an and Sunna and where it is not possible to use analogy.

riba al-fadl: profit obtained by the superior value of a thing received over that of a thing given.

Ridda: the defection of various Arab tribes after the death of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

riwaya: a reading or transmission of a text.

sa’: a measure of volume equal to four mudds.

sadaqa: charitable giving in the Cause of Allah.

sadd adh-dhara’i’: the legal principle of blocking the means even if the method involved is otherwise legal. Thus is something is unlawful, the means to it is also unlawful.

sajda: the act of prostration.

Salaf: the early generations of the Muslims, particularly the Companions.

Shari’a: The legal modality of a people based on the revelation of their Prophet. The final Shari’a is that of Islam.

shirk: the unforgiveable wrong action of worshipping something or someone other than Allah or associating something or someone as a partner with Him.

sunan: plural of sunna.

Sunna: the customary practice of a person or group of people. It has come to refer almost exclusively to the practice of the Messenger of Allah.

tafsir: commentary or explanation of the meanings of the Qur’an.

tawatur: the quality of being mutawatir.

‘urf: customary or known practices.

usul: plural of asl, the basic principles of any source

waqf: also habous, an unalienable endowment for a charitable purpose.

wudu’: ritual washing, performed to be pure for the prayer.

zakat: a wealth tax, one of the five Pillars of Islam.

People and Texts Mentioned

Abu Bakr: the first khalif after the Messenger of Allah, born either two years or six years after the Year of the Elephant (51 years before the hijra). He was the best of the Companions. He died in 13/634 when he was 63 and was buried beside the Messenger of Allah.

Abu Bakr al-Abhari: He lived in Baghdad and wrote many valuable books. It is said that Maliki fiqh was established in Iraq through him. He was unique in being the only successor to Isma’il ibn Ishaq in Iraq who was competent in all areas of Maliki fiqh. d. 375.

Abu Hanifa: Abu Hanifa an-Nu’man ibn Thabit, founder of the Hanafi school, one of the four Imams, who developed ra’y (judicial opinion). He died in 150/167.

Abu’l-Hasan al-Karkhi: A Hanafi faqih who wrote al-Usul. d. 390.

Abu Hurayra: He became Muslim in the year of Khaybar. He is considered to be one of the Companions with the greatest memory. He died in Madina in 56/679 at the age of 77.

Abu’l-Husayn al-Basri: a Mu’tazilite faqih who died in 478/1085. He wrote al-Mu’tamid fi usul l-fiqh, a major source of influence in the field of usul until ar-Razi’s Mahsul.

Abu Sufyan: The leader of Quraysh against the Muslims, he became Muslim when Makka was conquered and was present with the Prophet at the Battle of Hunayn. He was the father of the Prophet’s wife, Umm Habiba. He died in Madina in 31/652.

Abu Yusuf: born in Kufa in 113/731. Student of Abu Hanifa and the first to propagate his school. He was a hadith master and teacher of three ‘Abbasid khalifs, and made the Hanafi school the official state code. He was he first to write on fundamentals of Hanafi fiqh. He died in Baghdad in 182/798.

al-Ahkam fi Tamyiz al-Fatawa: a book by al-Qarafi

Ahkam al-Qur’an: a book by Ibn ‘Arabi.

Ahmad ibn Hanbal: Imam of the Ahl as-Sunna and founder of the Hanbali school, born in Baghdad in 164/780. He was devoted to the Sunna so that he became its Imam in his time. He learned fiqh from ash-Shafi’i. He died in 241/855.

‘A’isha: Umm al-Mu’minin, the daughter of Abu Bakr and favourite wife of the Prophet. She related 2210 hadiths from the Prophet. She died in Madina and was buried in al-Baqi’ in 58/678.

Al-Asamm: A Mu’tazilite. He is said to have died in 850, although 816/8 seems more likely. He was an extreme opponent of the Shi’a.

Asbagh ibn Faraj: the mawla of ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdu’l-‘Aziz. He was a faqih of Egypt who related from Ibn Wahb, Ibn Qasim, Ashhab, ad-Da’udi and others. Al-Bukhari and others related from him. Ibn Ma’in said, ÒHe had the greatest knowledge of the opinion of Malik – he was truthful, scholarly and scrupulous.Ó He died in 225/839.

al-Ash’ari: Abu’l-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Isma’il: He was born in Basra in 260/873-4, and was a descendant of Abu Musa al-Ash’ari. He was first a Mu’tazilite, a follower of al-Jubba’i, but later left them. He became an unrivalled great scholar, the Imam of the People of the Sunna and author of famous books. His Maqalat al-Islamiyyin is the first of its kind.He died in 324 /936.

Ashhab: the Maliki faqih. He related from al-Layth, Malik and others, and Sahnun related from him. He was also a pupil of Ibn Wahb. He was the leading Maliki faqih in Egypt after Ibn Qasim. He died eighteen days after ash-Shafi’i at the age of 64 in 204/819.

al-Awza’i: Abu ‘Amr ‘Abdu’r-Rahman, Imam and founder of the madhhab followed by the people of the Maghrib before they became Maliki. He lived in Syria until he died as a murabit in the port of Beirut. in 157/774.

al-Bahja: a commentary on an abridgement of al-Bukhari written by Ibn Abi Jamra, an Andalusian scholar (d. 1300).

al-Bannani: ‘Abdu’r-Rahman b. Jad Allah, d. 1173/1759, wrote a gloss on the Mukhtasar of Khalil.

al-Baradha’i: Abu Sa’id: the greatest of the students of Ibn Abi Zayd. Wrote several books, a commentary on the Mudawwana called Tamhid al-Mudawwana, an abridgement of al-Mudawwana, and the Kitab at-Tahdhib. d. ca. 372.

al-Bazdawi: Also called Fakhr al-Islam, Muhammad ibn Muhammad, d. 483/1100. He wrote Usul ad-din. He was a Hanafi.

Bishr al-Marisi: he was prominent in publicising the idea that the Qur’an was created and had his own gathering in Baghdad. He was connected most of his life with Kufa. He studied fiqh and hadith with Abu Yusuf and hadith with Sufyan ibn ‘Uyayna. He was probably executed in about 218/833.

Fakhr al-Islam: This refers to al-Bazdawi.

al-Ghazali: Muhammad ibn Muhammad, Abu Hamid at-Tusi, the Shafi’i Imam and Sufi born in Tabiran, near Tus in 450/1058. He was nicknamed “Shafi’i the Second”). He died in Tabiran in 505/1111. He wrote many books on various topics. In fiqh, his books include al-Mustasfa and Jima’ al-‘Ilm.

Hammad ibn Salama: (Abu Hanifa’s teacher) Abu Salama al-Basri, the mufti of Basra and a reliable narrator of hadith, excellent in Arabic and opposition to inovation. He died in 167/784.

al-Hasan ibn Ziyad al-Lu’lu’i: one of the famous students of Abu Hanifa and a faqih of Kufa. He wrote several practical works on law, including a handbook for qadis. He died in Kufa in 204.

Ibn Abi Zayd: al-Qayrawani: Maliki faqih, d. 386/996. He is known as Shaykh al-Faqih. He wrote ar-Risala and an-Nawadir.

Ibn al-Anbari: One of the most knowledgeable in the area of literature and grammar. He wrote many books, especially about the Qur’an. He has a book on the gharib hadith. He was a leading grammarian among the Kufans. He died in Baghdad in 328.

Ibn al-‘Arabi: Qadi Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah al-Ishbili, d. 543/1148, the Maliki author of Ahkam al-Qur’an and several other books.

Ibn Hajar al-Haythami: Ahmad ibn Muhammad, born in 909/1504 in Abu Haytam, western Egypt, was the Shafi’i Imam of his time. He received permission to give fatwas when he was barely 20. He died in Makka in 974/1567. He wrote many definitive works on Shafi’i fiqh, esp. Minhaj at-Talibin, Tuhfa al-Muhtaj, al-Fatawa al-Kubra, and az-Zawajir.

Ibn al-Hajib: ‘Uthman b. ‘Uthman, d. 646/1249, a Maliki faqih who wrote Mukhtasar al-Muntaha fi’l-usul.

Ibn Hazm: ‘Ali ibn Ahmad az-Zahiri, born in Cordoba in 384/994. He was the main representative of the Zahirite school. He was exiled to Labla in Andalusia where he died in 456/1064.

Ibn Jarir at-Tabari: see at-Tabari.

Ibn Khaldun: ‘Abdu’r-Rahman ibn Muhammad, born in Tunis in 732/1332. A philosopher and historian who travelled over North Africa and Andalusia. He went to Egypt where az-Zahir made him the Maliki qadi, but was dismissed for preferring his native Tunisian dress to customary official robes. Wrote the seven volume al-‘Ibar, the world’s first work on social theory. Died in Cairo in 808/1406.

Ibn Najim: Ibrahim al-Misri al-Hanafi, d. 970/1563. Author of many books, including al-Ashbah wa’n-Nadha’ir.

Ibn Qayyim: Abu ‘Abdullah al-Jawziyya, born in Damascus in 691/1292, a Hanbali hadith scholar who wrote Zad al-Ma’ad. He edited Ibn Taymiyya’s works. He went to prison with him in Damascus and remained with him until Ibn Taymiyya’s death in 728/1328. He died in Damascus in 751/1350. Author of I’lam al-Muwaqqi’in.

Ibn Qutayba: a man of letters more than a theologian. Born in Kufa in 213/828 and died in Baghdad in 276/889. From 851 to 870 he was qadi of Dinawar in Kurdistan, but from 871 on he devoted himself to teaching. His views were close to those of Ibn Hanbal. He has works on many subjects, including ‘Uyun al-Akhbar and Kitab al-Ma’arif.

Ibn Rushd: Abu’l-Walid Muhammad ibn Ahmad: a Maliki jurist and qadi, Imam of the Great Mosque of Cordoba, grandfather of the philosopher of the same name (Averroes) 1058-1126. Author of al-Muqaddamat.

Ibn Shihab az-Zuhri: a faqih and hadith scholar, one of the most knowledgeable of the Followers. ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdu’l-‘Aziz wrote to all regions, ÒYou must have Ibn Shihab. You will not find anyone with more knowledge of the past sunna than him.Ó He died in 124/741.

Ibn Sirin: Muhammad al-Basri, the client of Anas ibn Malik, the Imam of his time in the sciences of the deen in Basra, a Follower who was reliable in fiqh and hadith and is related from by the Six Imams. He died in 110/729 at the age of 80.

Ibrahim an-Nakha’i: one of the great Followers in correctness, truthfulness, transmission and memory of hadith, the faqih of Iraq. He was an Imam and mujtahid. He died in 96/714

I’lam al-Muwaqqi’in: See Ibn al-Qayyim.

Imam of the two Harams: al-Juwayni who wrote a nineteen volume, Nihaya al-Matlab on the Shafi’i school. He was the shaykh of al-Ghazzali and died in Nishapur in 478/1085.

‘Isa ibn Aban: a Hanafi faqih who studied under ash-Shaybani and was qadi of Basra for ten years d. 220/835

Qadi Isma’il: ibn Ishaq al-Azdi al-Basri: the qadi and scholar in all areas of knowledge and in literature. He died in Baghdad in 282 AH.

Qadi ‘Iyad: ‘Iyad ibn Musa, Abu’l-Fadl al-Yahsubi, born in Ceutain 476/1083. The Imam of the western Muslim lands in hadith and Arabic, a gifted Maliki scholar who wrote a number of books, especially the Tartib al-Madarik and ash-Shifa’. Was a qadi in Ceuta, then Granada and then Marrakesh and died of poison in 544/1149.

al-‘Izz ibn ‘Abdu’s-Salam: nicknamed “the Sultan of the Scholars”, a Shafi’i scholar and mujtahid, educated in Damascus, later qadi and Imam in Cairo. He produced a number of books on all subjects. His masterpiece was Qawa’id al-Ahkam fi masalih al-anam. He died in Cairo at the age of 81 in 660/1262.

Kashf al-Asrar: a book by the Hanafi, ‘Ala’ al-Bukhari (d. 730/1329-30) on the Usul ad-din of al-Bazdawi.

Khalil: ibn Ishaq al-Jundi: Maliki mufti of Cairo and teacher at the Shaykhuniyya (d. 1365 or 1374). He wrote al-Mukhtasar, one of the most popular compendiums of Maliki fiqh.

al-Layth ibn Sa’d: al-Fihri al-Misri: Abu Harith, the excellent faqih and a Follower of the Followers who died in 175 AH. Malik said that he was one of the people of knowledge.

al-Madarik: see Qadi ‘Iyad

Malik ibn Anas: Abu ‘Abdullah al-Asbahi al-Himyari, born in Madina in 93 AH, the famous Imam of Madina in fiqh and hadith. One of the four Imams. It is enough that ash-Shafi’i was one of his pupils. He wrote al-Muwatta’. He died in Madina in 179/795.

al-Mazari: Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, d. 536/1141, a Maliki scholar of Sicilian origin who settled in al-Mahdiyya, who wrote a commentary on al-Burhan by al-Juwayni.

al-Marwazi: a transmitter of the Sahih al-Bukhari. d. 371/981.

al-Mudawwana: the famous Maliki legal compendium of Sahnun.

Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ash-Shaybani: A mujtahid Imam who was educated by Abu Hanifa, Abu Yusuf and Malik. Harun appointed him qadi in Baghdad. He was one of the shaykhs of ash-Shafi’i. He wrote many books and died in Rayy in 189/804.

al-Muqaddamat: A book by Ibn Rushd

al-Mustasfa min ‘ilm al-usul: book by al-Ghazali.

al-Muwafaqat: a book by ash-Shatibi.

al-Muwatta’: Malik’s compendium of fiqh and hadith.

al-Muzani: Born in 175/791 in Egypt, a Shafi’i mujtahid who wrote al-Mukhtasar about Shafi’i fiqh. He died in 264/878.

Nafi’: the client of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar. He grew up in Madina to become the mufti and Imam of the Tabi’un, and he was the teacher of the Imam Malik. He died in Madina in 117/735.

Qadi Abu Bakr: see Ibn ‘Arabi.

al-Qarafi: Shihab ad-din Ahmad b. Idris Egyptian Maliki, d. 684/1285. He wrote Sharh Tanqih al-Fusul fi’l-Usul, al-Ahkam fi Tamyiz al-Fatawa, and al-Furuq.

al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr: one of the seven fuqaha’ of Madina, the nephew of ‘A’isha. He died in 108/725 He learned from ‘A’isha and Ibn ‘Abbas. He had incredible knowledge of the Sunna.

Qatada ibn Di’ama: He was Basran and was born in 61/680. He was a hadith scholar and mufassir. He was the chief disciple of al-Hasan al-Basri. Ibn Hanbal called him “the most learned person in Basra.” He died of the plague in 118/736.

al-Qurtubi: Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abi Bakr Farh, Abu ‘Abdullah al-Ansari al-Qurtubi, of Cordoba, a Maliki scholar and hadith scholar, one of the greatest Imams of tafsir, a zahid who divided his days between writing and worship. His tafsir is al-Jami’ li-ahkam al-Qur’an in 20 volumes. He travelled to the east and settled in Munya Abi’l-Khusayb in Upper Egypt where he died in 671/1273.

Rabi’a (ar-Ra’y): Rabi’a ibn ‘Abdu’r-Rahman, famous faqih of Madina. d. 136.

Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab: Imam of the Followers, a master of both fiqh and hadith. He was born in the last two years of the khalifate of ‘Umar. He died in Madina in 94/712.

as-Sayrafi: Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah, the Shafi’i faqih, d. 330 AH.

Seven fuqaha’: in Madina the seven Followers who were famous for their transmission of fiqh: Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab, ‘Urwa ibn az-Zubayr, al-Qasim ibn Muhammad, Kharija ibn Zayd, Abu Bakr ibn ‘Ubayd, Sulayman ibn Yasar, and ‘Ubaydullah ibn ‘Abdullah.

ash-Sha’bi: Abu Amr ‘Amir ibn Sharahil, a Follower famous for his intelligence. He was the companion of ‘Abdu’l-Malik. He was one of the reliable men of hadith and died in Kufa in 104 /721.

ash-Shafi’i: He is the founder of one of the four madhhabs. He wrote al-Umm and ar-Risala. He died in 204/820.

ash-Shatibi: Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Musa al-Gharnati, d. 790/1388) A Maliki faqih who wrote al-I’tisam and al-Muwafaqat.

As-Subki: ‘Ali ibn ‘Abdu’l-Kafi, born in Subk, Egypt in 683/1284, a Shafi’i scholar and mujtahid. He wrote more than 150 books including at-Takmila, Fatawa as-Subki, and al-Ibhaj fi Sharkh al-Minhaj. In 739 he moved to Damascus where he was made a qadi. Eventually he returned to Cairo where he died in 756/1355.

Sufyan ibn ‘Uyayna: one of the scholars and Imams from whom the compilers of the Six Sahih has transmitted. He was one of the Followers of the Followers. He met eighty-six of them. He lived in Makka. He was born in 107 AH and died in 198/813

at-Tabaqat: a book by as-Subki.

at-Tabari: Muhammad ibn Jarir Abu Ja’far, one of the scholars and author of famous books, especially his large history. He was from Tabaristan and was born in 224/839 and died in 310/923. He has a large and widely-used tafsir of the Qur’an called Jami’ al-bayan known as Tafsir al-Tabari. He also had his own school of fiqh.

at-Tanbihat: book by Qadi Iyad. It is a commentary on the Mudawwana.

al-Tanqih, Tanqih al-Fusul: a book by a-Qarafi.

At-Tufi al-Hanbali: Sulayman, d. 716. Hanbali author of a Risala.

‘Umar ibn al-Khattab: the Amir al-Mu’minin. A Companion and one of the strongest defenders of Islam. He became Khalif after Abu Bakr in 13 AH. He was murdered by Abu Lu’lu’a in 23 when he was 63. His khalifate had lasted 10 years and 6 months.

‘Umar ibn ‘Abdu’l-‘Aziz: He was a Follower and a great Imam. People say he was the sixth of the khalifs. He related from ‘Abdullah ibn Ja’far, Anas, Ibn al-Musayyab and others. The Six Collections transmit from him. He died in 101 AH when he was 40. He was Khalif for two years and five months. His virtues are famous.

Yahya ibn Sa’id: A qadi in Madina and then in Iraq. A major figure in early science of hadith. Died in al-Hashimiyya, Iraq, in 143/760.

Zayd ibn Aslam: the faqih, the client of ‘Umar, He is reliable and his hadith are sound. He related from Ibn ‘Umar and Jabir. The authors of the Six transmit from him. He died in 136 AH.

Zufar: one of the more prominent pupils of Abu Hanifa. He died in Basra in 158 at the age of 48.

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